Farming in Gujarat
Location and Geography
The state of Gujarat lies on the western coast of India. In fact, it is the westernmost state in India and is bordered by Pakistan and Rajasthan in the north east, Madhya Pradesh in the east, and Maharashtra and the Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli in the south. The Arabian Sea borders the state both to the west and the south west. The geographical location of Gujrat is between 20° 6' N t° 24° 42' N north latitude and 68° 10'E to 74° 28'E east longitude Gujarat is one of the most industrialized states and of the fastest growing economies in India.
Gujarat is situated on the west coast of Indian peninsula. The geography of Gujarat divides the state into 3 based on the physiography of the state: Kutch, Saurashtra and Kathiawad. 1 (See the map also - http://g.co/maps/9rrvb)
Land, Soil and Climate
Land: Total geographical area of the state is about 161.98 lakhs hectares. It is noteworthy to find that 61% of the geographical area is under cultivation in the state. Kheda, Mehsana, Amreli, Surat, Gandhinagar, Anand, Patan, Bhavnagar and Banaskantha districts have more than 70% of their area under cultivation. The state has 9.00% of their land as waste land and the same may be effectively used under various watershed projects. 5.00% of area are under pasture land and land under non-agriculture use or cultivable unutilized categories are covered about 15.00% of the geographical area.2
Soils:The soils of Gujarat can be broadly classified into nine groups: black soil, mixed red and black soils, residual sandy soils, alluvial soils, saline/alkali soils, lateritic soils, hilly soils, desert soils and forest soils.3
Climate :In terms of the standard climatic types, tropical climates viz., sub-humid, arid and semi-arid are spread over different regions of the state. Out of total area of the state 58. 60 per cent fall under arid and semi-arid climatic zone. The arid zone contributes 24.94 per cent, while the semi-arid zone forms 33.66 per cent of the total area of the state. The regions in the extreme north comprising the district of Kutchh and the western parts of Banaskantha and Mehsana, the northern fringe of Saurashtra (Jamnagar) and its western part haqve arid climate the rest of the State has semi-arid climate. The district of Valsad, Dangs, Surat, Vadodara and Kheda in the extreme south of the State have sub-humid climate.
Rainfall: The average annual rainfall over different parts of the State varies widely from 300 mm in the Western half of Kutch to 2100 mm in the Southern part of Valsad district and the Dangs. The monsoon usually commences by the middle of June and withdraws by the end of September, about 95% of the total annual rainfall being received during these months rainfall is received in June, nearly 40% in the July, 25% in August and 15% to 25% in July, August and September. The maximum number of rainy days is in July and August.
Temperature: There is considerable variation State-wise average temperature during the course of the year. The average weekly minimum temperature is about 12.5 C. experienced generally in the month of January. Some parts of the State occasionally experience frost during this period.
The average weekly maximum temperature is 39.9 C, generally reached by about the second week of May. Thus, January is the coldest month, while May is the hottest month for Gujarat. October is another month of higher temperature.
Agro climatic zones of Gujarat :
- GJ-1 South Gujarat Heavy Rainfall Zone
- GJ-2 South Gujarat Zone
- GJ-3 Middle Gujarat Zone
- GJ-4 North Gujarat Zone
- GJ-5 North-west Zone
- GJ-6 North Saurashtra Zone
- GJ-7 South Saurashtra Zone
- GJ-8 Bhal and Coastal Zone
Source: Dacnet - http://goo.gl/DM0Wt
Agriculture and Crops grown
Agriculture in Gujarat forms a vital sector of the state's economy. It has to provide the required food grains for the state's population and raw materials for most of the agro-based industries. Unsuitable climatic conditions in some parts and rocky terrain with thin or no soils in others, have limited the area suitable for cultivation. The difficulty of drainage in coastal areas and in the two Ranns has made a large part of the state agriculturally unproductive. The state's agricultural productivity is low. The yield is poor and in most cases does not even approach the low level of average yield for the country. Low yields result from poor soils, inadequate rainfall, frequent droughts and floods, bad drainage and undeveloped irrigation facilities. A characteristic feature of the state's agriculture is its cropping pattern un-proportionately dominated by cash crops. The high yield of cotton in fact the highest in the country reflects the overall emphasis on cash crops, which have claimed the best agricultural land.4
Source: State agriculture department - http://goo.gl/5qnw
Agriculture Trade and Economy
Agriculture in Gujarat forms a vital sector of the state's economy. It provides the required food grains for the state's population and raw materials for most of the agro-based industries. Unsuitable climatic conditions in some parts and rocky terrain with thin or no soils in others, have limited the area suitable for cultivation. The difficulties of drainage in coastal areas and in the two Ranns have made a large part of the state agriculturally unproductive. The state's agricultural productivity is low. The yields are poor and in most cases do not even meet the total average yield of the country. Low yields result from poor soils, inadequate rainfall, frequent drought and flood, bad drainage and undeveloped irrigation facilities. The main feature of the state's agriculture is its cropping pattern reflected by the variations in climate and topography. The high yield of cotton is the highest in the country, and reflects the overall emphasis on cash crops, which has claimed the best agricultural land. A higher percentage of the land is used for cultivation in central Gujarat. Kaira, Baroda, Broach and Surat districts are the main contributors to the agricultural production of the state. Valsad has become India's first integrated horticulture district. Groundnut (highest production in the country), Cotton, Tobacco (second highest production in the country), Isabgul, Cumin, Sugarcane, Jawar, Bajra, Rice, Wheat, Pulses, Tur and Gram are the important crops of Gujarat. Another cash crop which has recently entered the field in a few selected localities is banana. Plenty of mangoes for export as well as home consumption are part of cash crops. Honey, wax and bamboo are produced in fair quantities in different forests and medicinal herbs and fruits like Jamun and guava are produced in plenty. Forests also yield considerable quantities of teak, Khair, Sadad, Hadariyo, manual bamboos and good quality of wood.5
- - Gujarat State Information - http://goo.gl/DhVMi
- - Department of Agriculture - http://goo.gl/jeVfV
- - Soils of Gujarat - http://goo.gl/CF9Rb
- - Webindia123 - http://goo.gl/VI4ue
- - Gujarat Tourism - http://goo.gl/y4XV3